As we know, the state of matter that people familiar with is gas, liquid, solid, ion and liquid crystal. Liquid crystal is the combination of special structure molecules. It is liquid crystal in a certain temperature range and crystal in a lower temperature. It not only has special physical property of flowing, but also has special opto-electronics property of crystallizing. The composition of liquid crystal is a kind of organic compound which center is a carbon molecule. The liquid crystal which has two kind of material at the same time is the combination of the intermolecular force. It not only has special optical properties, but also is very sensitive to electromagnetic field. So it has very practical value and it is widely used in displaying field since the middle of 20 century.
The common applications of liquid crystal are display panels of digital watches and calculator. The working principle of liquid crystal is electro-optic effect that electronic signal is transforming into optical signal. It is transparent in normal conditions that the molecules of liquid crystal are orderly and systematic. You can see a picture when liquid crystal molecules are stimulating by electricity, some of them become non-transparent and some darker and some lighter. People produce thermometers and poison gas alarms according to discoloring property of liquid crystal. For example: liquid crystal thermometers turn red, green or blue with the temperature.
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